The Carlton Community History Group (CCHG) was established by a committed group of people interested in the history of Carlton, an inner suburb of Melbourne, Australia. CCHG was incorporated in 2007 and launched at the Carlton Library in 2008.
We invite you to explore this website, find out more about us, read our newsletter, share your recollections and participate in our meetings and activities.
Have you seen our latest publication? Carlton Voices is an edited and illustrated collection of stories which reflect the immense diversity of our local history. It consists of researched articles as well as reports of interviews with people from a wide range of ages and ethnic backgrounds. Each "voice" describes its own Carlton in colourful detail. A Chinese family whose patriarch arrived here in 1855 experienced decades of discrimination which continued into World War 2. A woman who lives next door to the house where she was born almost 95 years ago remembers tearing up newspaper to use in the lavatory in the days when toilet paper was a luxury. The heyday of Italian Carlton is recalled by the children of the charismatic founder of the Australian Festival of Italian song.
Available for $15 (plus postage if applicable) from the Carlton Library in Rathdowne Street, North Carlton, and by mail order from CCHG. Visit the publications page for more information.
Important Meeting Notice
CCHG Meetings are postponed until further notice, due to COVID-19 restrictions and the closure of our regular meeting venue at the Carlton Library.
Calling All Gobles
Are you related to George Frederick Goble? If yes, CCHG would like to hear from you.
George Frederick Goble was born in Essex, England, in the early 1800s. He lived in England, America and Australia, and he spent his final years in the Melbourne suburb of Carlton. George married Emma Anne Faulden (Foalden) at Longford, Tasmania, in 1838 and they had six children, all born in Launceston, Tasmania. The births of four of these children were registered with the names Emily Ann, Geofred, John William and Marantheo Eliza. George Goble died at Wharton Terrace in Drummond Street, Carlton, on 13 April 1888 and he was buried in an unmarked grave in Melbourne General Cemetery. He shares the grave with John Hely, who died in 1887.
As a veteran of the American Civil War, George Goble may be entitled to a grave marker from the American Veterans' Administration. The Melbourne General Cemetery requires the permission of a living descendant for a grave to be altered. Please contact CCHG if you can assist.
A Night at the Pictures
The Former Carlton Picture Theatre
235 Faraday Street Carlton
(Photographed in 2009)
Decades before the advent of television and online streaming services, a Saturday matinée or night at the pictures was a special occasion. Motion pictures were the latest entertainment technology when the Carlton Picture Theatre opened in April 1924. The building at 235 Faraday Street, Carlton, was originally designed by architect W.A. Fettes and constructed by William Dougherty in 1908 as a billiard hall and club rooms. The conversion to a modern picture theatre began in September 1923, under the supervision of Collins Street architect Gerald Ryan, and the theatre opened to the public on 14 April 1924.1,2,3
The Carlton Picture Palace is to be opened shortly. Mr S. Weinberg [sic], of Carlton, is the founder of the project, which has been merged into The Carlton Theatres Pty Ltd. The building is constructed of brick and reinforced concrete, and the classical front is finished in cement stucco. Stairs on both sides of the large front entrance opening lead to the balcony. The auditorium and gallery are large and roomy, and special attention has been paid to lighting and ventilation, both being carried out on the very latest American principles. The building has been designed and supervised by Gerrald [sic] M. Ryan, architect of 352 Collins street, Melbourne, and the work carried out by E. Goette and Son, Lygon street, Carlton.
The Herald, 9 April 1924, p. 12
Within a few days of opening, The Carlton Picture Theatres Pty Ltd was in trouble for having opened a public building without the approval in writing of the Public Health Commission. The case was prosecuted at the Carlton Court in July 1924.
PUBLIC HEALTH PROSECUTION.
THEATRE OPENED WITHOUT APPROVAL.
The Carlton Picture Theatres Pty Ltd was procceded against at the Carlton Court on Friday for having opened a public building, the Carlton Picture Theatre, in Faraday street, without the approval in writing of the Public Health Commission. Mr. T. B. Wade, P.M., and Mr. W. Rendry, J.P., comprised the bench. Mr. Menzies prosecuted on behalf of the Public Health Commission. Clarence Victor Lister, building surveyor of the Public Health department, said that he had inspected the theatre on April 17, and found that all requirements had not been complied with. Plain-clothes Constable Wagener said that the theatre was opened on April 14. Mr. Wiseberg [sic], a director of the company, in pleading guilty, said that he was ignorant of the fact that the requirement had not been attended to. A fine of £10 was imposed, with £1/1 costs.
The Argus 12 July 1924, p. 28
Two years later, Samuel Weisberg was still haggling with architect Gerald Ryan over building costs. He sued the architect for breach of contract, but Gerald Ryan issued a counter-claim for unpaid fees. The court ruled in Ryan's favour.
CARLTON PICTURE THEATRE.
CLAIM AGAINST ARCHITECT FAILS.
Samuel Weisberg, formerly of Pigdon-street, Carlton, but now of Daylesford, recently took action against Gerald M. Ryan, architect, of Collins-street, Melbourne, to recover £1000 damages for alleged breach of contract in connection with the converting of a billiard hall in Faraday-street, Carlton, into a picture theatre. Plaintiff alleged that he employed defendant to prepare plans and to supervise the work in connection with the conversion. The total cost of the work, he alleged, inclusive of extras, was not to exceed £2950. He alleged, that defendant accepted engagement on these terms, but that he had been guilty of a breach of duty, in that he authorised the expenditure on a considerable number of extras, whereby the cost of the work was greatly increased. Plaintiff also alleged that after he had paid the £2000 defendant gave a certificate for £725 extras to the builder, and also an acknowledgment that there was a balance of £100 2/10 owing by plaintiff to the builder. It was also claimed that the specifications did not comply with the municipal building regulations, nor with the requirements of the Health Commission, making necessary extra work and costs.
Defendant denied negligence, and claimed that any extras were authorised under plaintiff's instructions. He counter-claimed for £141 10/, architect's fees said to be owing by Weisberg. Mr. Gamble (instructed by Messrs. Herman and Stretton) appeared for plaintiff, and Mr. Hogan (instructed by Mr. G. P. Newman) for defendant. Mr. Justice Schutt gave his reserved decision in the action in the Banco Court yesterday. After reviewing the number of items of alleged extras, his Honor said he did not think Weisberg was entitled to succeed. The contract was a verbal one, and he did not think that £2950 or any sum was agreed upon as a maximum cost of the work. He entered judgment for defendant on the claim, with costs, and judgment for Ryan on the counter claim, with costs.
The Age, 31 March 1926, p. 1
In October of the same year, the Carlton Picture Theatre was rocked to its foundations by a gelignite bomb thrown from the back lane. The damage was confined to the rear of the building and fortunately there were no injuries. After repairs, the picture theatre resumed screenings, but that was not the end of its troubles. In December 1926, a group of local businesses, residents, ratepayers and theatre patrons wrote to the Health Officer at Melbourne Town Hall complaining about poor ventilation within the theatre – particularly in the warmer months – inadequate toilet facilities and the nuisance caused by patrons relieving themselves in the back lane. Nevertheless, the Carlton Picture Theatre went on to be one of the oldest continuously operating cinema buildings in Melbourne. Post World War 2, as the Carlton demographic changed, the picture theatre was notable for screening foreign language and arthouse films. "The Bughouse", as it was affectionately known, may have survived a bomb blast in the 1920s, but it did not survive into the 21st century. The development of large multi-screen complexes saw the end of small independent cinemas, which were no longer able to compete for business. The Carlton Moviehouse, as it was re-branded, closed in 1999. The building was occupied by STA Travel for several years and has since been re-developed as office suites, with retail premises on the ground floor. 4,5
1 Australian Architectural Index
2 Cinema Treasures
3 The builder E. Goette & Son was based at 165 Lygon Street, Carlton
4 Public Building files (VPRS 7882/P1/104/482/1)
5 Victorian Heritage Database
The Good Architect
Despite achievements in gender equality, women can still face the "glass ceiling" in male-dominated professions. Back in 1920, a Carlton clergyman's daughter broke through the "drawing board" ceiling and made history as the first woman to be awarded a Diploma of Architecture at Melbourne University, and the first woman architect to be elected an associate of the Royal Victorian Institute of Architects (RVIA). Eileen Mary Florence Good was one of 4 children – 2 girls and 2 boys – born to the Rev. John Good and his wife Madeline (née Blackham). She was born in Essendon in 1893, where her father ministered to local parishioners. John Good took up a posting at St. Jude's Church in Lygon Street, Carlton, in 1902 and he was to remain there until his retirement from active ministry in 1928. 1
WOMEN AS ARCHITECTS
FIRST DIPLOMA WON
Although women have entered so many of the professions it is only in recent years that Australian women have been attracted to architecture. Miss Eileen Mary Florence Good is the first woman to secure the diploma of architecture at the Melbourne University. This distinction was awarded her at Commencement on Saturday in the Wilson Hall. So far those interested have not been able to secure a Chair of Architecture at the Melbourne University, so Miss Good's black gown was not brighened with one of the gay colored fur-lined collars worn by those who have taken degrees. At present there are four women students at the University preparing for the diploma of architecture. Probably Mrs W. B. Griffin, of America, was the first woman to practise in Victoria as an architect. She arrived here about seven years ago. In 1916 she had a rival in the field in the person of Miss Muriel Stott, a Victorian.
The course for the architecture diploma at the Melbourne University includes natural philosophy, engineering, surveying, chemistry, drawing, modelling, graphics, architecture, strength and elasticity of materials, also geology of building stones, in which Miss Good took honors last year. From the State school Miss Good passed to the University High School, where she did some brilliant work in mechanical drawing. Later she endeavored to get various positions as a draughtswoman, but found herself heavily handicapped on account of her sex. Eventually she succeeded a junior draughtsman in the office of Messrs. Purchas and Teague, architects, to whom she became articled later. Continuing her studies at the Working Men's College, she prepared herself for a University course and entered there three years ago to study for the diploma. Her ambition now is to qualify for admission to the Royal Victorian Institute of Architects. Miss Good is a daughter of the Rev. J. Good, St. Jude's Church, Carlton. She is at present attached to the staff of Messrs. Purchas and Teague, who value her services very highly.
The Herald, 20 April 1920, p. 4.
Even after women gained professional qualifications in architecture, there was still a perception that the "fairer sex" was more suited to domestic architecture and interior design. Collins Street architect Robert Hamilton expressed his opinion in the Weekly Times: "Women will never be able to take up architecture to its fullest extent on account of their disability to deal with the supervision of practical construction, such as the handling of big contracts. The ideal arrangement would be for the woman architect to work in conjunction with a man architect. The man could shoulder the constructive work and the woman could apply herself to the comfort and beauty of the interior." 2
Eileen Good was to prove Mr Hamilton wrong. Her original career choice was engineering, but this was denied to her as a woman. She went on to a successful career as a practising architect and teacher in both the Architecture and Engineering faculties at Melbourne University. Eileen was promoted to lecturer in 1949 and she taught a new generation of men and women architects until her retirement in 1960. She died on 26 November 1986 and her final resting place is in Melbourne General Cemetery, Carlton. 3
1 Biographical information has been sourced from birth, death and marriage records.
2 Weekly Times, 30 October 1926, p. 66
3 Encyclopedia of Women & Leadership in 20th century Australia
Lifting the Lid on the Milk Can
When Frank Davidson appeared in court in February 1899 to answer a charge of adulteration of milk, he blew the whistle on questionable practices in the retail dairy trade. Davidson denied adding water to the milk and claimed to be acting under the instructions of his employer, Frederick Morgan of Carlton, in supplying inferior quality "cold milk" to the poorer customers.For more information on dairies and milk distribution in Carlton, read our latest newsletter.
ADULTERATION OF MILK.
Frank Davidson, a carter in the employ of F. B. Morgan, a retail dairyman, of Faraday street, Carlton, was charged at the Fitzroy Court yesterday with selling adulterated milk. Mr. W.S. Fergie appeared for the defence. Evidence was given by detectives that they had seen Davidson pouring liquid into one of his cans.
Frederick Dunn, public analyst, stated that on January 9 he received four samples of milk obtained from Davidson and Morgan. One of the samples obtained from Davidson contained at least 11 per cent. of added water. The second sample obtained from Davidson was of standard quality. Both of the samples supplied by Morgan contained a large proportion of cream, and were consequently above the standard quality. In his opinion these samples had been specially prepared, either by mixing cream with ordinary fresh milk or skimming off the top of standing milk.
The defendant Frank Davidson deposed that he had been five years in the employ of Morgan. His employer had instructed him to supply what was called the cold milk, which was either stale or scalded watered milk or skim milk, to poor customers and those who wouldn't grumble, and the good milk, which was kept in a different can, to good customers, and those who were particular about the quality of the milk. The cold milk was frequently spoken about by the drivers at meal times.
To Inspector Eassie – When asked by the detectives about putting water into the can he said that he had put back milk into the can. He did not like to tell them that the can contained cold milk. All the drivers in Morgan's employ carried cold milk in the right-hand can. Robert Hunt, a carter in the employ of Morgan, deposed that cold milk was stale or skim milk. Morgan had instructed him to supply cold milk, which was always in the right-hand can, to customers who were not particular, and the fresh milk in the left-hand can to the best customers. Three other drivers in the employ of Morgan gave corroborative evidence.
Mr. Fergie asked the Bench to withhold their decision until the hearing of a similar case against Morgan. The Bench postponed the case for a week on the payment of £1/8/ costs.
Davidson was then fined £2 and £1/4/6 costs, and was granted a month's grace to enable him to recover the fine and costs from Morgan.
The Argus, 22 February 1899, p. 7
Nicholson Street Tram Track Upgrade
Tram Track removal in Nicholson Street, North Carlton, January 2020
The Nicholson Street tram route, which services both Carlton and North Carlton, had a major upgrade in January 2020, with the installation of accessible tram stops for the entire length of the street. The final stage of the project involved removing and replacing the tram tracks between Princes Street and Brunswick Road, to join up with the previously upgraded Carlton and Brunswick sections. Nicholson Street residents had to endure noise, dust and inconvenience during the project, but they have been promised an improved tram service, with better and safer access to tram stops.
The Nicholson Street tram route was originally opened as a cable tram service in August 1887. The cable winding house, which still exists, was located on the corner of Nicholson and Gertrude Streets, opposite the Carlton Gardens. The tram sheds, now home to the bus company Transdev, were located in Nicholson street, North Fitzroy, near Park Street. Melbourne's cable tram service was gradually run down from the 1920s and the Nicholson Street route was replaced by buses in October 1940. Electric powered tram services were re-instated in Nicholson street in April 1956 and have continued to serve local residents and businesses for over six decades.
For more information on trams, go to the Travelling in Carlton page.
Gastronomia Dal 1953
The recent auction of the Enoteca Sileno at the southern end of Amess Street, North Carlton, breaks one more link with the heyday of Italian Carlton in the 1950s and 1960s, but at the same time highlights the way in which so many different aspects of Italian culture have been adapted to, and merged with, the Australian mainstream. Amess Street has always been mostly residential but this double-fronted building at nos. 21-3 is an exception.
As early as 1897 it appears in Sands & McDougall's business directory as Condon's woodyard, conveniently situated with lanes beside and behind it. Within a few years it had become Condon's dairy and remained so for almost fifty years. No cardboard cartons or glass bottles then. Milk was bought as required and carried home, often by children, in a billy. Jack Ward, who as a child in the 1940s lived just round the corner in Fenwick Street, helped out at Condon's after school by rolling the milk cans up the bluestone lane. He was paid in milk. After 1947 the dairy changed its name several times. For a while it was called the Princes Park Dairy, which was where local cows were sent to graze, returning down Amess Street and entering no. 21 through its big front doors. They were milked at the back of the building where the two last rooms have a concrete floor and a slope to facilitate washing down.
By the late 1950s the dairy had closed and the front room was rented by Italian migrant Luigi "Gino" Di Santo who arrived in Australia in 1952. With an extensive background in business and a long family history in wine and food he quickly saw the potential in Australia for Italian products. In 1953 he was the first Italian immigrant to have a stand at the Home Show in the Melbourne Exhibition Building displaying a Borletti portable sewing machine, Venetian glass from Murano and Italian cigars and cigarettes. The importing business quickly diversified into baby food, mineral water, preserved vegetables, olive oil, balsamic vinegar, wines and liqueurs, featuring goods in demand with the booming Italian population and previously unknown to Australians but soon to become popular.
As the business grew, Gino rented more and more of the space. It became a large-scale operation. His daughter Rosemary remembers that:
"We used to unload shipping containers, with our imports, which were diagonally parked on the road occupying more than half of the street with rollers sending down cartons into the building. These cartons were unloaded using conveyor rollers and ferried throughout the building on trolleys racing up and down the corridors into the appropriate storage spot. The containers were hand unloaded there for about 20 years. Before containers many shipments were brought to Australia in wooden crates."
21 Amess Street served other purposes as well. At one point newly-arrived Italian men were renting sleeping space at the back of the building and the dairy cool store was converted into a shower room. There was also a jam factory at the back of the building run by a Mrs Hoult. No. 23 was gradually incorporated into the main space, housing offices and providing additional storage. The facade had been renovated by the then owners, who also owned number no. 19, and who probably also added the concrete slab outside the front door; Ferdinando Busatta was a concreter by trade. The bluestone foundations of the original cast-iron fence can still be seen beneath the slab.
By the early 1980s the business was gradually changing its focus to more traditional artisan products and in 1982 Gino was able, as he had always wanted, to open a retail store, an enoteca or wine bar. His is thought to have been the first place in Australia to specialise in Italian wines and the first business to use the word enoteca in its name. Customers came from far and wide and many still remember the cluttered treasure house of goods it offered.
Gino had owned the building since 1986 but by 2004 Enoteca Sileno was ready for another major change, moving to a two storey corner building in Lygon Street, previously the Rising Sun Hotel, where today, under the proud banner Gastronomia dal 1953, it conducts wholesale and retail businesses with a wide range of Italian products as well as a cooking school. No. 21-3 Amess Street reverted to its original function as storage space until it was sold in October 2019. Many will be pleased that this historic building appears to have dodged the developer's bulldozer. The new owner intends to live there.
Information for this story has been sourced from the Enoteca Sileno website, with additional research by CCHG. The assistance of Rosemary Di Santo-Portelli is gratefully acknowledged.
Every Picture Tells A Story
Photographer: Ernest Benson
95-97 Neill Street, Carlton
Recently CCHG received an historic photo, kindly donated by the Daylesford & District Historical Society. The location is easily identified as the Royal Antediluvian Order of Buffaloes (R.A.O.B.) Hall in Neill Street, Carlton. But when was the photo taken and what was the occasion? The photographer, Ernest Benson, advertised his business from 1941 to 1948 inclusive, and he specialised in weddings, social groups and soldiers' portraits. The military theme indicates the war years and, with some additional research, a similar photo was found published in The Age of 14 March 1944. Benson's photo features the whole building, with the rooftops of Carlton in the background, while The Age's photo shows a young boy standing in front of the tent, which is pitched on the median strip in Neill Street.1
Image: The Age, 14 March 1944, p. 3
The photo caption reads:
Members of the Royal Antediluvian Order of Buffaloes and their friends present at the ceremony at Carlton, when the dental units on the left and the X-ray equipment (centre) were presented from the Victorian lodges of the order to the Army and the R.A.N. respectively. Brigadier J. E. Down received the gift for the Army and Surgeon-Captain W. J. Carr for the Navy.
The hall building was designed by J.F. Gibbons & Son and constructed by W.J. Holden for the United Ancient Order of Druids (Olive Leaf Lodge) in 1917. The original name of the building was "Druids' Hall" and it is clear from the photo that the wording "R.A.O.B." is a more recent addition. In Benson's photo, on the right, there is a solitary pram standing outside the adjoining building. This was Carlton Crèche, built two years after the hall in 1919. The two buildings have had similar lifespans. Carlton Crèche closed in 1998 and was converted to residential apartments in 2000. In the same year, 2000, the R.A.O.B. Hall was sold and converted to two large apartments in 2002.2,3,4,5
The Royal Antediluvian Order of Buffaloes, originally known as "The Buffaloes", was founded in England in 1822 as a fraternal organisation, raising funds to support members and charities. The unusual name was taken from the song "We'll Chase the Buffalo", which was popular at the time.6
1 The Age, 14 March 1944, p. 3
2 Building Application no. 852, 28 July 1917 (VPRS 11201/P1/10/852)
3 Building Application Plan no. 852 (VPRS 11200/P1/98)
4 Victorian Heritage Database No. H1864
5 Melbourne Planning Register
Digitised Image: State Library of Victoria
The cover of a booklet from the 1930s features chronological images of the four Pelaco factories and "Pelaco Bill", the face of Pelaco's advertising.1
Shirtmaking in Carlton
For over a century the brand name Pelaco has been synonymous with the shirt, a basic item of apparel that does much to define the wearer's social, economic and even criminal status. The terms "white collar" and "blue collar" are still in use today and shirts, fashionable or functional, are now worn by both men and women. In the early decades, Pelaco's advertisements featured images of Australian aborigines ("Mine tinkit they fit") and women ("It is indeed a lovely shirt sir") to sell men's shirts. While these advertising themes would be considered politically incorrect by today's standards, they have endured as part of Australia's popular culture.
The Pelaco brand name was created from the first two letters of its founders' surnames, James Kerr Pearson and James Lindsay Law, and the abbreviation for the word "company", hence "Pe-la-co". In 1906, Messrs Pearson and Law formed a business partnership (Pearson Law) and began making shirts at the Derry Shirt Factory, 285 Drummond Street, Carlton. At the time, that area of Drummond Street, between University and Faraday streets, was a hive of manufactures. The shirtmakers' immediate neighbours were cap manufacturers, box makers, brush manufacturers and carpenters, with the Court House Hotel on the Faraday Street corner.2,3
The business was initally a small operation, with 12 machines and 18 employees, then it moved to larger premises in Gertrude Street, Fitzroy, in 1908 and Gipps Street, Richmond, in 1911, when the partnership became Pearson Law & Co Limited. The company went into voluntary liquidation in 1917 to enable formation of the public company Pelaco Limited. Shirts, collars and pyjamas were made at both factories until 1921, when Pelaco Limited moved to newly-built premises in Goodwood Street, Richmond. The distinctive Pelaco sign was installed in 1939 and has dominated Richmond's skyline for decades.4
After the departure of the shirtmaking business, the two-storey shopfront at 285 Drummond Street was home to the Carlton Club from 1910 to 1912. The building and adjoining properties (nos. 287 and 289) were owned by the department store, Ball & Welch, and used for warehousing and storage. The site has since been redeveloped and is now a commercial property. The Court House Hotel was delicensed in 1920.5,6
Notes and References:
1 It was widely thought that the aboriginal horseman Mulga Fred was the model for "Pelaco Bill" in advertising artwork created by Tom Mockeridge. An alternative explanation is that the character was inspired by the image of an aboriginal head on a postcard, purchased at Royal Arcade in Melbourne.
2 The tale of a shirt. Pelaco Limited, circa. 1930s
3 Building location and occupancy information has been sourced from Sands & McDougall directories.
4 Pelaco : a visual history of the Pelaco Company and brand a century down the track. Bounce Books, 2006
5 Building ownership information for the Drummond Street properties has been sourced from Melbourne City Council rate books and land title records.
6 Index to defunct hotel licences (VPRS 8159). The Court House Hotel was first licensed as the Faraday Hotel in June 1871.
Former Carlton Crèche
101-111 Neill Street Carlton
Child care centres are now run along business lines but when the Carlton Crèche opened in October 1919, benevolent concerns for the children of less fortunate parents were the main drivers. The crèche at 101-111 Neill Street was not the first in Carlton. A small crèche operated from a private residence as early as 1900 and, in 1914, larger premises were found at a two-storey house at 558 Lygon Street, Carlton. The new crèche was different in that it was purpose-built and believed to be the first of its kind in Victoria. The two-storey, red brick building has an austere institutional look, reflecting community attitudes at the time when respectable mothers stayed at home and looked after their children.
Carlton Crèche was officially opened by the Lady Mayoress, Mrs. Cabena, on 28 October 1919.
The Girl in Silk Pyjamas
September 2019 marks the 85th anniversary of one of the most sensational cases in 20th century Australian criminal history. The story of the so-called "Pyjama Girl" has been told many times over - in newspapers, books, television, film and on stage - and the romantic notion of a young woman in silk pyjamas has, to some extent, overtaken the harsh reality of her brutal death. Her public story began on the morning of 1 September 1934, when a woman's partly burnt body was found stuffed into a culvert on the Howlong Road, near Albury in New South Wales. Her body was dressed in the tattered remains of oriental-style pyjamas, hence the name "Pyjama Girl". She had suffered extensive head injuries, from multiple blows, and a post-mortem examination revealed a bullet wound in her neck. The mystery of the Pyjama Girl took ten years to solve. She was identified as Linda Agostini of Carlton and her husband Antonio was found guilty of her manslaughter in 1944. The case was solved but, to this day, a lingering doubt about the true identity of the Pyjama Girl and the circumstances of her death still remains. Was she the victim of an accidental death or of extreme domestic violence?
Read the Pyjama Girl's story on the Crime in Carlton page.
An Echo From the Past
Digitised Image: CCHG
This postcard-sized advertisement for Echo Publishing Company Limited of North Fitzroy was discovered amongst some notebooks, meticulously handwritten by William Wilson of Drummond Street, Carlton. Mr Wilson was a student at the Education Department Training College in Grattan Street, Carlton, in the early 1900s. The advertisement served a dual purpose in promoting a book by American author Ellen G. White, and the verso could also be used as a blotter – a smart way of advertising in the days of pen and ink. Ellen G. White was one of the founders of the Seventh Day Adventist movement and her book was first published by the Pacific Press Publishing Association in 1903. This places the date of the advertisement between 1903 and October 1905, when the business name of the Echo Publishing Company Limited was changed to the Signs of the Times Publishing Association Limited. 1,2
The Echo Publishing Company Limited began as a small-scale religious publisher and printer on the corner of Rae and Scotchmer Streets, North Fitzroy, in 1886. The business expanded its operations to include commercial work, and moved to larger premises at 14-16 Best Street, North Fitzroy in 1889. The Company, run by the Seventh Day Adventists, reviewed its operations in the early 1900s and made the decision, based on its religious principles, to discontinue commercial work and leave the city. This was an early example of decentralisation and involved building a new state-of-the-art factory and housing for workers and their families in Warburton, then a small village east of Melbourne. The North Fitzroy factory was vacated in February 1907.3,4,5,6,7
William Wilson's notebooks and other documents were kindly donated to CCHG by the Yarra Ranges Regional Museum. The advertising blotter is now in the local history collection of the Fitzroy Library.
Notes and References:
1 Ellen G. White Writings Website
2 Victoria Government Gazette, 4 October 1905, p. 3
3 Business address information has been sourced from Sands & McDougall directories and newspaper advertisements.
4 The Age, 30 April 1889, p. 3
5 The Age, 13 May 1905, p. 15
6 Reporter (Box Hill), 20 April 1906, p. 5
7 Table Talk, 10 January 1907, p. 24
No Parking Sign in Canning Street, North Carlton
Iron Lacework, Cnr. Canning and Macpherson Streets, North Carlton
This sign on the median strip in Canning Street, North Carlton, states quite clearly:
Keep off the Grass
NO PARKING ON LAWN RESERVATION
But are parking officers from Melbourne City Council likely to cross the municipal boundary of Princes Street to issue an infringement notice? The sign, bearing the Melbourne City Council's name and coat of arms, is a relic of times past, when Carlton, North Carlton and Princes Hill were all part of the same municipality. North Carlton and Princes Hill were hived off from Melbourne City Council and joined the newly-created City of Yarra in the 1990s.
There are plenty of other reminders of Melbourne City Council to be found in North Carlton and Princes Hill. The coat of arms appears on the green street bollards and in the iron lacework of many shopfront verandahs. The images of fleece, bull, whale and sailing ship date back to 1843, when wool, tallow and oil were the chief exports of the colony (then part of New South Wales).
Next time you go for a walk along Canning Street, have a look the bollards and compare the coat of arms images with those on the "no parking" sign. The whale and sailing ship images have been relocated to the lower half, while the bull has been moved up to join the fleece on the upper half. The change was made in 1970 in order to have the land-based and water-based images placed, logically, on their respective levels. Why didn't someone think of that back in 1843?1
1 Melbourne Coat of Arms
Turning on the Waterworks at Carlton Gardens
Image: Punch, 31 December 1857, p. 6
Water Main Renewal Project
Canning Street, North Carlton, February 2020
Notes and References:
1 Melbourne Water website
2 Yan Yean : A history of Melbourne's early water supply, Tony Dingle and Helen Doyle, PROV, 2003
3 The Age, 24 December 1857, p. 4
4 The Argus, 1 January 1858, p. 5
5 The Age, 1 January 1858, p. 4
6 The Age, 5 January 1858, p. 4
7 Plan of Allotments at Carlton, North Melbourne, Parish of Jika Jika, Public Lands Office, 1859
8 The Argus, 26 November 1858, p. 5
9 City West Water website
Water security is a global issue and in Melbourne we are fortunate to have good quality drinking water available on tap. In the early days, the city's water supply was precarious, particularly during the summer months. Rainwater had to be collected, bores were sunk and water was pumped and carted from the Yarra River and other water courses. As the town's population grew, so did the demand for water and the only long term solution was to construct a reservoir to hold water and convey it via a system of pipes to the city. Yan Yean, north east of Melbourne, was chosen as a suitable site, with water drawn from the Plenty River. Construction took place over four years, commencing in December 1853, and it was a major engineering project for its time. The cast iron water pipes from the reservoir were laid through bushland to the outskirts of Melbourne, then followed the course of what later became St Georges Road to join Nicholson Street near Yorke (later Lee) Street and thence to the Carlton Gardens. 1,2
In December 1857, when the suburb of Carlton was just a few years old and North Carlton was yet to be created, the main valve was installed at the Carlton Gardens in readiness for the official opening of the Yan Yean Waterworks. As the hot days of summer arrived, the citizens of Melbourne eagerly awaited their new water supply, as announced by The Age on Christmas Eve:
It is understood that Melbourne is to be treated to something like a miniature deluge on the occasion of the opening of the Yan Yean waterworks, on the 31st of December. Jets d'eau are to be placed at every corner of every principal street ; but the great torrent is to issue in the vicinity of Carlton Gardens, under the auspices of His Excellency The Governor. The Melbourne Total Abstinence Society are to celebrate the event by a grand procession through the city.
In the same edition of the newspaper, The Age made a "glass half empty" comment that the stand pipes, which had previously supplied water to parts of the city, were to be removed "to induce the owners of property to lay the water on to their houses". This, as claimed by the The Age, had led to water carriers doubling their price from three to six shillings a load, and the burden of cost would fall on tenants. The Age concluded: "As it is, the completion of the Yan Yean water works instead of being a boon will prove a very great source of annoyance to most of the inhabitants of Melbourne." 3
The last day of 1857 dawned and by noon an estimated crowd of 7,000 had gathered at the Carlton Gardens. The Governor of Victoria, Henry Barkly, was unable to attend due to disposition, and the honour of opening the main valve went to Major-General Macarthur, the Commander-in-Chief of Her Majesty's Forces in Australia. Other dignitaries included Dr. Greeves, President of the Water and Sewerage Commission, Bishop James Palmer, Premier William Haines, Mayor Thomas Smith, Justice Redmond Barry and engineer Matthew Bullock Jackson, who superintended the whole scheme. 4
The Argus reported the occasion in matter-of-fact detail, while The Age, one again, took a "glass half empty" approach. The reporter complained about the lack of accommodation for the press, and the poor organisation of the event and crowd control of the procession that followed through the city:
Immediately on the arrival of the head of the procession at the crossing of Elizabeth street and Flinders street, a desperate attempt was made to get the congregating masses into some kind of order. Sweltering policemen pushed and shoved about until they became almost apoplectic, and the choleric Dr Greeves fought desperately for room to work the lever with which he set the jet d'eau in play. The worthy Doctor kicked and spluttered, and snapped, and at last, with the aid of a herculean policeman, encouraged by the bland smile of his Worship the Mayor, elbow room was procured, and the jet d'eau was squirted into a carriage filled with ladies, who in their innocent confidence had driven up to get a sight of the first jet d'eau to be set in motion in the capital city of the Southern Hemisphere. In a moment they were drenched from head to foot. Their coachman was so nearly drowned that he was some minutes before he could move out of the range of the first jet of the Yan Yean. 5
A few days later, The Age acknowledged one positive outcome of the improved water pressure and reported that: "The Superintendent of the Melbourne Fire Brigade informs us that the nozzles of the delivery pipes have already been enlarged, so as to meet the great pressure of the Yan Yean waters." 6
A little-known consequence of the waterworks project was that the land bounded by Station, Nicholson, Elgin and Reilly (Princes) streets in Carlton was reserved from sale for use as a tramway terminus. Matthew Bullock Jackson proposed that the wooden tramway, built to aid pipe-laying from Yan Yean to the Carlton Gardens, could be converted into a locomotive railway line for carrying goods and passengers. This would open up Yan Yean and locations along the way to settlement and sightseeing traffic. It was a bold idea and no doubt Jackson had the engineering skill and ability to make it happen, but funding was lacking and the project never went ahead. The land was released for sale in 1863 and, as a result, the buildings on the east side of Station Street between Elgin and Reilly (Princes) streets were of later construction than those on the west side. 7,8
Fast forward to mid-2019 and the time has come to renew the water main servicing both Carlton and North Carlton. The existing water main running beneath Nicholson Street is 140 years old – not quite as old as the Yan Yean pipes – and is nearing the end of its operational life. The new – and larger diameter – water main is to be installed beneath Canning Street, from Faraday Street through to Park Street, and will involve tunnelling under the major intersections at Elgin and Princes streets. Apart from renewing the pipes, the water main has to be re-located as the new tram superstops in Nicholson Street will make it difficult to access the existing pipes for essential maintenance. Life was much simpler in the 1850s, when public utilities did not have to compete with each other for space. However, we do enjoy the health and benefits of modern living and clean water. 9
Judith Biddington (left) receiving her Award of Merit from Richard Broome
On Tuesday 21 May 2019 Dr Judith Biddington, founder and inaugural president of the Carlton Community History Group (CCHG), was presented with of an Award of Merit by the Royal Historical Society of Victoria for "meritorious service" to a historical society. Thirteen years ago, Judith identified the need for a local community history group in Carlton and set about to achieve this goal. She placed a notice in the Carlton Library and this lead to the established a pattern of monthly meetings with presentations by people with some light to shed on the experience of growing up and living and working in Carlton. Within a year the Carlton Community History Group was meeting regularly, became incorporated, and achieved affiliation to the Royal Historical Society of Victoria.
From the start her approach has been to engage with local people directly, including shopkeepers, teachers, potential speakers for meetings, long term residents, representatives of organisations like churches and our local mosque, gathering history on the ground, and most importantly, involving and enthusing people. Along with several other hard working and dedicated members, Judith began recording a series of interviews with present and former Carlton residents. These oral histories are now to be digitised and made more accessible. She also began a series of special events and regular publications produced by the CCHG, commencing with her own booklet "Some Women of Davis Street : 1891 and 2008". Judith edited Des Norman's book "Through the eyes of a child : A street in Carlton 1939-45 and contributed a chapter to CCHG's latest publication "Carlton Voices", launched in October 2018.
Judith has also written several articles and book reviews for the CCHG website and these reflect her eclectic range of interests.
The Bassos of North Carlton : A Love Story and a Full Life
Betty Burstall 1926-2013
Carlton Footballers Who Fought and Died in the Wars
A Russian Visitor : Aleksandr Leonidovich Yashchenko
The Trades Hall : Part of our History
Vale Des Norman 1930-2015
Women and War : Two Case Studies
Nurse Basser's Hospital
Ellen Forehan sat, pen poised, and contemplated the document placed before her. Her husband Jeremiah had died a few weeks ago, on 29 November 1890, and in his will he appointed her executrix of his estate. She was now to sign an affidavit that would grant her probate of her husband's estate, valued at £1,231, 16 shillings and one penny. An official of the Supreme Court of Victoria had read and explained the document to her, and he believed that she had fully understood the content. In his presence, Ellen made her "X" mark on the affidavit. Ellen Forehan, the woman who could not sign her own name, later went on to become matron of Rosedale House private hospital in Carlton
Read Nurse Basser's story.
Corner of Amess and Richardson Streets, North Carlton
Note: MMBW detail plans are available online at the State Library of Victoria's website.
In the days before the advent of electricity, the streets of Carlton were illuminated with gas lighting. There were gas lamps on many street corners and several examples still remain, as truncated lamp post bases. The Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of Works (MMBW) detail plans, drawn up in the late 19th and early 20th century, include codes showing the location of gas lamps (G.L.) and electric light posts (E.L.P.). The two methods of illumination co-existed for a time, but electric lighting eventually took over and the gas lamps were decommissioned. The upper portions of the lamp posts were removed, leaving the decorative bases.
There are gas lamp bases at the following locations:
- Corner of Amess and Pigdon Streets, North Carlton ;
- Corner of Amess and Richardson Streets, North Carlton ;
- Corner of Canning and Fenwick Streets, North Carlton ;
- Corner of Canning and O'Grady Streets, North Carlton ;
- Corner of Nicholson and Pigdon Streets, North Carlton (Removed in October 2019) ;
- Corner of Lygon Street and Argyle Place, Carlton ;
- Corner of Rathdowne and Barkly Streets, Carlton ;
- Corner of Swanston and Pelham Streets, Carlton.
Corner of Nicholson and Pigdon Streets, North Carlton
The lamp post was made by "D. Niven and Co., Iron Founders, Collingwood".
The base was removed from the street corner in October 2019.
Little but Fierce
Shakespeare Street Mural
Have you see the new mural facing the mini park in Shakespeare Street, North Carlton? The text "Little but Fierce" is taken from William Shakespeare's play A Midsummer Night's Dream and was suggested by a local resident. The full wording is: "And though she be but little, she is fierce". That Shakespeare Street is "little" there is no doubt. The street is narrow and runs for one block only, between Drummond and Lygon Streets. For the "fierce" side of Shakespeare Street, we need to look back in history.
Shakespeare Street was the scene of at least two shooting incidents, one fatal, in 1922 and 1944. The street was identified as a "slum pocket" by the Housing Investigation and Slum Abolition Board in 1936-37. The people of Shakespeare Street had a battle on their hands in the 1950s and 1960s, when the Housing Commission of Victoria condemned five cottages on the south side (nos. 7 to 15 inclusive) as unfit for human habitation. The cottages were demolished in January 1970, leaving a vacant space ready for development. Without doubt, the fiercest battle fought in Shakespeare Street was in the 1970s, against the inappropriate building of a block of cluster flats on the south side of the street. Residents and other concerned citizens took action, at their own expense, by cleaning up the vacant site and creating a mini park for the benefit and enjoyment of the community. They bravely put their money where their mouth was, so to speak, and entered into an agreement with the City of Melbourne to buy the land. Decades later, the mini park and its new mural remain a tribute to the power of community action.
More information on Shakespeare Street
Shooting in Shakespeare Street
The Penny Dreadful
The Munster Arms
Princes Street is the dividing line between Carlton and North Carlton, and a major thoroughfare for east-west traffic. When the lights turn red at the Canning Street intersection, few travellers could fail to notice the distinctive Edwardian building on the south west corner. The Dan O'Connell Hotel is a Carlton institution and perhaps best known for its St Patrick's Day celebrations. The present hotel building is over 100 years old and was designed by Smith & Ogg and built by C.F. Pittard in 1912. It was named after Irish political leader Daniel O'Connell (1775�1847), but the Irish connection goes back even further, to a earlier hotel on the same site.1
The Munster Arms Hotel, named after the province of Munster in the south of Ireland, was first licensed to Margaret McCrohan in 1875. Her application of 8 June was initially opposed, and the close proximity of two other hotels - the Pioneer hotel and United States Hotel - may have been a contributory factor. The application was postponed for 14 days and the licence was granted on 22 June 1875. The original building was described as a small brick hotel, with nine rooms, a bar and a cellar. Mrs McCrohan and her husband Eugene ran the hotel until 1881, when the licence was transferred to George Henry (Harry) Wallace.2,3,4
Wallace held the licence for about a year only, and ran into trouble when removing an unruly patron from his hotel in October 1881. He took legal action against Daniel Dorian (Dorien) for assault, but this case was dismissed by the City Bench. A few months later on 27 February 1882, Dorian, a bricklayer, sought the sum of £300, as damages for an assault and battery, and malicious prosecution. The civil case was heard in the Supreme Court before a judge and jury. The presentation of evidence from both parties took the greater part of the day and the judge commented that the case could have been dealt with in a lower court. After a short deliberation by the jury, Dorian, the plaintiff, was awarded £5, considerably less then the desired amount.5
By the end of the month, George Henry Wallace had transferred his licence to Annie McCanny. Mrs McCanny, former licensee of the Kensington Hotel, did not have the capital to finance her new hotel business and she entered into an arrangement, to the value of £396, with the Melbourne Brewing and Malting Company Limited. Such financial arrangements were common in the nineteenth century and enabled persons of limited financial means to go into business. The brewing company acted as a de facto bank and the hotel was "tied" to the company and required to sell its beer. The bill of sale between Annie McCanny and the Melbourne Brewing and Malting Company Limited, dated 30 March 1882, includes a detailed room-by-room inventory of the hotel contents, and this gives a fascinating snapshot of the hotel in the 1880s.6
On 24 September 1882, Annie McCanny, her niece Mary Ann Cunningham and her friend Elizabeth Vernor had a frightening experience, when four drunken men forced their way into the hotel after closing time. The men went on a rampage, chasing young Mary Ann, throwing a decanter at Elizabeth, breaking a window, smashing glasses and damaging fittings. When Thomas Henderson (alias Pangburn), James Gawthorn, Thomas Whelan and John Robinson appeared in the City Court to answer the charges, they pleaded drunkenness as an excuse, and offered to make good the damage. The magistrate, Mr Panton, took a hard line and denied drunkenness as an excuse for ruffian behaviour, and he fined the men accordingly.7
Annie McCanny died intestate on 17 June 1883, aged 33 years, and she left two young sons, James and Henry. Their father, Thomas McCanny, could not be located and there was an outstanding protection order against him for domestic violence. (Ironically, the protection order enabled Annie to obtain the hotel licence because, at the time, there were restrictions on granting licences to married women.) The Melbourne Brewing and Malting Company Limited took possession of the hotel, as was their right, and the "two intelligent looking" boys appeared in the City Court charged with being neglected children. The magistrate, Mr Panton, was sympathetic to their plight, but Annie's estate, valued at £405, 8 shillings and 6 pence, was tied to the Melbourne Brewing and Malting Company Limited and there was no financial provision for her children. The boys were sent to St Augustine's orphanage in Geelong, and the Victoria Police Gazette later reported that the younger brother, Henry, had absconded in 1891.8,9,10
It could be said that the Munster Arms Hotel died with Annie McCanny. Once the administrative arrangements of Annie's estate were sorted out, the hotel was taken over in August 1883 by Mary Buggy, who paid £100 for the licence. It was during her time as licensee that the Munster Arms became the Dan O'Connell, with the new name first appearing in the Licensing Register in December 1883. The Dan O'Connell continues to trade in the 21st century and remains the only surviving licensed hotel south of Princes Street, between Nicholson Street and Rathdowne Street. This area of Carlton was once populated with a number of hotels, all of which have been delicensed, though some former hotel buildings still remain. The Dan O'Connell's immediate neighbours, the Pioneer Hotel and the United States Hotel, were delicensed in 1907 and 1925 respectively.11
Notes and References:
1 Building information has been sourced from the Australian Architectural Index and Melbourne City Council Rate Books
2 Hotel licensing information has been sourced from the Licensing Register (VPRS 7601) and Index to Defunct Hotel Licences (VPRS 8159)
3 The United States Hotel was on the corner of Canning and Neill Streets, Carlton. It is now the Princes Hill Gallery.
4 The Pioneer Hotel was on the corner of Station and Neill Streets, Carlton. The building no longer exists.
5 The Argus, 2 March 1882, p. 5
6 Conditional Bill of Sale 60205, Mrs McCanny to the Melbourne Brewing and Malting Company Limited, 30th March 1882 (VPRS 8350)
7 The Argus, 30 September 1882, p. 12
8 Probate File of Annie McCanny, 25-885 (VPRS 28)
9 The Argus, 7 August 1883, p. 10
10 Victoria Police Gazette, 23 September 1891, p. 270
11 The Argus, 15 August 1883, p. 11.
For more stories of Carlton pubs, read our August 2017 newsletter.
A Girl in Trouble
In her recent book For a girl : a true story of secrets, motherhood and hope, writer Mary-Rose MacColl gives an account of the time she spent at a home for unmarried pregnant women in Carlton in the 1970s. Mary-Rose became pregnant at 18 and she travelled interstate, from her home city of Brisbane, to have her baby and give it up for adoption. While community attitudes towards single mothers were changing at the time, there was still a social stigma attached to being "a girl in trouble". In the case of Mary-Rose, she had left home and lied about the married man who had made her pregnant, in order to protect his identity and reputation. She kept her secret for years and it was only after the birth of her second child, a son, that the long-suppressed memories surfaced and she was able to embark on her painful journey of reconciliation and recovery.1
Mary-Rose's home during her pregnancy was the St Joseph's Receiving Home at 101 Grattan Street, conveniently near the Royal Women's Hospital, and run by the Sisters of St Joseph. The Receiving Home was first established in Barkly Street, Carlton, in 1902 by Margaret Goldspink, a well known charity and welfare worker. Within a few years, the home moved to the larger premises in Grattan Street, an opulent two-storey house designed by W.S. Law and built for Louisa Langley in 1890. Mrs Langley, who also owned the adjacent aerated waters factory, was declared insolvent in 1905, forcing the sale of the house and factory site to pay her creditors. The Catholic Church purchased the property, measuring 56 feet by 132 feet, for £2,000 in late 1905 and Archbishop Carr invited the Sisters of St Joseph to take over management of the Receiving Home in 1906. During World War 1 the building was extended, at a cost of £4,000 (twice the original purchase price), with a new wing and chapel that was officially opened by Coadjuter-Archbishop Daniel Mannix in February 1915. The land on the eastern side, towards Lygon Street, was later acquired and the houses of Grattan Terrace (nos. 81 to 99) were demolished in 1960 to make way for a new accommodation wing. 2,3,4,5,6,7,8
For nearly 80 years, St Joseph's Receiving Home offered shelter to thousands of pregnant women and also provided short term residential care to children considered by the courts to be neglected or "at risk". The supporting mother's benefit was introduced by the Whitlam Government in 1973, when it was acknowledged that single mothers needed support, not condemnation, to keep their babies. Rates of adoption, which was once seen as a convenient solution to a social problem, have dropped off dramatically since the 1970s, while the birth rate of ex-nuptual babies has risen steadily during the same period. These babies are now more likely to be born and raised in the community than in institutions. The Receiving Home closed in 1985, when it was merged with St Joseph's Babies Home to form the new St Joseph's Babies' & Family Service in Glenroy. The 1960s accommodation wing was demolished in the 1990s and redeveloped as a retail and residential complex. The Royal Women's Hospital, where many of the Receiving Home residents had their babies, relocated to new premises in Flemington Road, Parkville, in 2008. 9,10,11,12
Image Source: The Advocate, 27 February 1915, p. 27
Architect A.A. Fritsch's drawing of St Joseph's Receiving Home extension, officially opened in February 1915.
The original 1890 building facade was replicated in the new wing, and a chapel was added on the western boundary.
The houses of the former Receiving Home are now numbered 103 and 105 Grattan Street, Carlton.
1 The Age Good Weekend, 22 April 2017, p. 22-24
2 Mackillop Family Services
3 Land ownership and occupancy information sourced from land title records and Melbourne City Council rate books
4 Australian Architectural Index
5 The Age, 13 May 1905, p. 12
6 The Advocate, 6 January 1906, p. 16
7 The Advocate, 27 February 1915, p. 27
8 Register of Demolitions, 1945-1975 (VPRS 17292)
9 Find & Connect : History & information about Australian orphanages, children's homes & other institutions
10 Births Australia (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 3301.0)
11 Australian Social Trends (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 4102.0)
12 Building Application Index (VPRS 11202)
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